Facts & Stats

Units of length, time and frequency

1 micron = 1,000th of a millimetre
25.4 microns = 1,000th of an inch
1 micron = 10 -6 meters
10,000 Ångstrom = 1 micron
10 Å  = 1 nanometer

The diameter of a typical neuron cell = between 10 and 20 microns.

The wavelength of light visible to the eye = about ½ micron.

The distance between adjacent atoms in an organic molecule = about 2 Å.

An average sized protein might have a diameter of about 50Å.

Action potentials travel at about four feet per second along the neural filaments

1 millisecond = 1,000th of a second.
1 microsecond = 1,000th of a millisecond (one millionth of a second)
1 Atto second 10 -18

Speed of the length of a wavelength of light = 10 Attoseconds Ference Krausz Vienna Ns p36 9 April 2005

1                  10 1                          Ten

1                  10 2                       1 Hundred

1 kilo     = 10 3  or       1 Thousand 1, 000

1 mega   = 10 6 or       1 Million                                  1          Uno

1 giga     = 10 9 or       1 Billion                                   2          Duo

1 tera    = 10 12 or      1 Trillion                                 3          Tres

1 peta   = 10 15 or      1 Quadrillion                           4          Quatuor

1 exa   = 10 18           1 Quintillion                            5          Quinque

1 zeta   = 10 21           1 Sextillion                              6          Sex

1 yotta = 10 24           1 Septillion                              7          Septem

1 bronto = 10 27           1 Octillion                               8          Octo

1                  10 30          1 Nonillion                              9          Novem

1                  10 33          1 Decatillion                         10          Decem

It is thought that we are born with a billion giga neural networks

We grow a trillion tera filaments of dendrites and axons during our lifetimes.

We have a quadrillion peta cells (1,200 trillion) in our adult bodies (solid tissue in the bones, skin and organs plus neural and other biological structures, hormones and other chemical messengers, blood and lymph liquids, resident viruses and bacteria – mutually beneficial parasites).

There are at any one time approximately one quintillion exa H2O molecules in an average adult.

Volume of Information

A study at Berkeley suggests the world generates 5 quintillion exa bytes of new information in 2002.       http://www2.sims.berkeley.edu/research/projects/how-much-info-2003/

Volumes & Quantities Graphene

28 Grams cover 28 football fields

16 cu cms could balance on a blade of grass.

Operating Speeds

1 hertz = I event or cycle per second

Middle C is about 260 Hertz

Brain Weighs 3 ½ lb ( 1350 gms) brain operating at 77 mille volts

Action potentials in Axons & Dendrites travel at about four feet per second.

Action Potentials peak voltage 120 mV. Duration: 2-5 ms.

Physics World p 45 Sep 1999

Electons travel along axons at approximately one billion per second.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences vol 107 p18127.

Synapses: Gap approx 20 nano meters. Physics World p 46 Sep 1999

Temperature about 37º c

‘Clock Pulse’ of Brain

13 Visual frames per second. [NS 24 Oct 09 p33 ]

Alpha Waves 8-12 Hertz        [Sci Am p 26 August 2012]

Beta Waves 12 – 20 Nertz       [Sci Am p 26 August 2012]

Brain Size  1200 – 1500 cu cms    [Sci Am p 26 August 2012]

Inversion of image.

Variable. Possibly an index of IQ. [Biological Systems of the Brain p109.]

Human Body

120  Trillion Cells in solid tissue

25  Trillion Blood Cells supply the others with oxygen

100 Trillion Bactera. Average gut holds 1.5 kg of microbes

3    Billion Neurons ( of which 1 billion in the brain).

1-2    Trillion axon & dendrite additional links in mature Brain

30    Billion Glia (from Times Eureka article Oct 09)

100 Million types of viruses.

The largest chemical constituents of the body are water molecules.

There are some 100 small Peptide substances.

Human Genome

Four base pairs, Nucleotides Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine & Thymine   (see DNA)

Three pairs of Nucleotides to One Codon

Variable number of codons to one Gene which create 20 Amino Acids, RNA


Variable number of genes to one Chromosome                       ▼

23 pairs of Chromosomes to the Genome                     create stem cells

(22 ½ in males)

There are 23 pairs of Chromosomes in one complete human genome. These vary considerably. The largest chromosomes have some 3,000 genes and some 250m base pairs of nucleotides. The smallest has some 365 genes and some 75m base pairs.

There are thought to be approximately 3 billion base pairs in each complete human genome.


Simplest Bacteria:

Mycoplasm (pneumonia)   have      583,000      Base Pairs          485 Genes

Complex Bacteria:

Bacteria (mesorhizopium) have              10 million      Base Pairs        8,000 Genes

Fungus:  typically              have 38 million      Base Pairs

(Yeast   -Saccharomyces                                                           5,000 Genes)


(Worm c Ellegans -959 cells                                                    19,100 Genes)


(Fly                                                                                          13,600 Genes)

Plants: typically                 have 115 million      Base Pairs

Humans                             have    3 billion       Base Pairs      25,000 Genes

(According to Craig Ventor)

Humans can sweat up to 12 litres of water in a day.


DNA ► RNA ►Ribosomes ►Amino acids ►Proteins ►Protein’s fold into stem Cells ►Specialised cells.

151 components blueprint for life

57 parts

1 million atoms

George Church, Harvard Medical School

Synthetic Biology

Viruses, Bacteris an the Family of Eukartotes

3 billion years (NS p17 8 May 2004)

Viruses                      }          single celled organisims

Archaea                     }         no nucleus

Prokaryotes               }                                  a million species

Bacteria                     }          Nucleus

Cyanobacterium            Generates a majority of the Ocean’s Photosynthesis

Eukaryotes                }          Nucleus



Archaeplastida                Plants

Opisthokonta                 Fungi & Animals

Note NS p55 19April 2014 


22 Litres of steam = 1023 molecules of H2O 

Operation of Neural Networks (and flocking)

‘Resting State Networks’: collective activity:            Chialvo UCLA

‘Self organised criticality’      Coordinated, but highly responsive to external disturbance. Balance between orderliness & adaptability:

Cavagna. Institute for complex systems Rome

Bialek. Princeton

Manfred Eigen 1967 Nobel Prize

‘Critical Phase Transition’

‘Scale invariance’

‘Critical ‘Casimir force’

‘Signalling cascades’

(See also ‘What is Life’ Erwin Schrödinger)

Note NS p47 26April 2014


A small chemical neurotransmitter excreted by motor neurons to excite muscles. See Neurotransmitters.

Single celled organisms 

Action Potential
The electrical pulse that travels down axon and dendrite neural filaments transmitting information.

An attribute that appears to be of value for an organism, generally in aid of its survival or reproduction.

A predetermined procedure for carrying out ordered instructions.
A rule for solving a particular problem.
Step by step procedure for a calculation

After al-Kuwarizmi an Arab mathematician c830 AD who is also credited with inventing algebra.

Amino acids
Amino acids are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins and the smaller peptides. The name of the acids comes from the stem word amine, meaning “derived from ammonia.” Amino acids join together in long chains forming peptide bonds, and a chain of amino acids is known as a polypeptide. Proteins are large, nat­urally occurring polypeptides.

Amino Methylisoxazole Proprionic Acid. One of the building blocks of Protein.

Region of the brain associated with emotion and thought to be the most ancient part of the evolved brain

Representing states, or carrying out mathematical or logical procedures by manipulating continuous physical variables. The neurons in the brain process impulses in an analogue mode. See Digital.

A substance that, when introduced into the body stimulates the production of antibodies, resulting in cellular immunity. Antigens include toxins, bacteria, foreign blood cells, and the cells of transplanted organs.

Mechanical computer C Archimedes. Mentioned by Cicero et al. [Michael Wright Science Museum]

Apoptosis. Cell Death 

Argued in favour of Deductive reasoning 

The smallest unit of an element, having all the characteristics of that element and consisting of a dense, central, positively charged nucleus of protons and neutrons surrounded by a system of negatively charged electrons. A molecule of water consists of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen – famously H2O.


Adenosine TriPhosphate. Store of energy. See Kinesin 

Autocatalysis Catalysts that make catalysts

Autogenesis. Creates life forms automatically

Autonomic nervous system.
The fundamental nervous system of the body that transmits information around the body and operates all the organs without our conscious involvement. This basic ‘operating system’ is responsible for co-ordinating all the myriad cells in an organism to behave as one co-ordinated whole.

A protoplasmic extension of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts impulses from the cell nucleus outward to adjacent cells. The transmitting neural filaments. See Dendrites.

Baysian Logic
Theory of the computation of probability


Bayesian infer­ence, Tweaking our model of current and future events based on related events from the past.


The networks of neurons built by our inherited DNA that are developed by the time we are born. These networks provide the basic framework for our ability to function as a living organism and to learn. They co-ordinate and control the functions of our bodies. They give us the general ability to register and eventually learn to respond to sensory stimuli. The input networks are able to grow new dendrites and axons which, in response to the repetition of specific sounds, sights, feelings, tastes and smells, build networks specifically to recognise these statistical regularities. On the output side the bioprograms are capable of operating all our muscles and stimulating all our glands.

The smallest measurable unit of machine (artificial) information.

Brain stem
The first area of the brain to evolve. It sits at the base of the skull, well under the cortex, at the top of the spinal cord. It is responsible for such “autonomic’ actions as breathing, excretion, and regulation of body temperature.

Broca’s Area
A region at the front the brain associated with language. see Wernicke’s area.

The smallest structural unit of an organism that is capable of indepen­dent functioning, consisting of one or more nuclei, cytoplasm, and various organelles, all surrounded by a semi permeable cell membrane.

Central nervous system
The nervous system of higher organisms made up of the brain and spinal cord.

A section of the brain behind the brain stem mainly responsible for co-ordinating movement.

Cerebral Cortex
A pair of large folded sheets of neurons, one on either side of the top of the head. Each ‘side’ does specific tasks but there is always a degree of back-up. Gives rise to ‘left brain right brain’ theories.

A structure that contains the genetic material of an organism. see DNA .

Cognitive Neuroscience
A combination of cognitive psychology, behavioural neurology and computer science. 

Conscious Awareness
Conscious: from the Latin conscienta; cum (with or together) + scire (to know). Originally used to describe sense of morality and ethical behaviour: now conscience. Also root of science. 

Corpus Collosum
A large tract of axons connecting the two halves of the cerebral cortex


Creativity Alpha Waves 8-12 Hertz            [Sci Am p 26 August 2012]


Cyclic AMP Response Element Binding protein. A gene expression regulator.

The science of studying the human brain.

The theory of communication and control mechanisms in living systems and machines.

All the material in a cell except the nucleus, but including the machinery for making proteins

A branched protoplasmic extension of a nerve cell, or neuron that conducts impulses from adjacent cells inward toward the cell nucleus. A single neuron may possess many dendrites. The ‘input’ neural filaments. See Axons.

Representing states or carrying out mathematical or logical      procedures in coded steps corresponding to the symbolic operation of a calculus. Neurons operate in an analogue mode so the brain finds emulating digital operations difficult to execute. See Analogue.

DNA (see RNA & PNA)
Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid, the basis of heredity, is a protein molecule consisting of a large number of chemical units called nucleotides attached together in matched pairs forming the familiar double helix


DNA consists of 4 protein nucleotide molecules arranged in

Base Pairs. These protein nucleotides are :-


There are 23 pairs of Chromosomes in one complete human genome. These vary considerably. The largest chromosomes have some 3,000 genes and some 250m base pairs of nucleotides. The smallest has some 365 genes and some 75m base pairs.


There are thought to be approximately 3 billion base pairs in each complete human genome. See Human Genome


A neurotransmitter that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse. 

Doppler Effect: Red shift

The philosophical doctrine that mind and matter exist as indepen­dent entities, neither being reducible to the other

Electro Encephalo Graph (EEG).
Records electrical activity in the brain to identify the position and strength of various areas of the brain to help identify their functions

The properties of an organism that are not possessed by its parts, but are observed to ‘emerge’ as a result of the functioning of the whole. The opposite of ‘Reductionism’.

The capacity or power to produce an effect. It is the property of a system that is a measure of its capacity for doing work. Energy comes in a variety of forms: electrical, thermal, chemical, nuclear, radiant, and mechanical.

In Aristotelian philosophy, the principle of life, identified with the soul or psyche. The entelechy is both the formal or formative cause and the final cause, or end, of a living body; thus there is always an internalized purpose in life.

A large protein, whose function is to catalyze chemical reactions in biological systems at rates many hundreds to thousands of times faster than would be possible without it. Enzymes can both create larger molecules and break them down into smaller pieces.

The conversion of a genotype into a phenotype. A process whereby the expression of a gene, or even possibly the genetic code itself, is varied from its original hereditary state within one organism; and just conceivably across generations, when it is referred to as Transgenerational Epigenetic Inheritance


Theory of Knowledge


Eukaryotic cells
Eukaryotic cells (from the Greek meaning truly nuclear) comprise all of the life kingdoms except monera. They can be easily distinguished through a membrane-bound nucleus. Eukaryotic cells also contain many internal membrane-bound structures called organelles. These organelles such as the mitochondrion or chloroplast serve to perform metabolic functions and energy conversion. Other organelles like intracellular filaments provide structural support and cellular motility.

Literally, a process of unrolling or opening out. In the 1830s this word was first applied to the historical transmutation of organisms; by the 1860s and 1870s it had come to refer to a general process of biological transmutation, which was commonly assumed to be directional or progressive. Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection suggested that this process was blind and purpose­less, which became the central concept in neo-Darwinism, the dominant orthodoxy of modern biology. Other evolutionary philosophies suggest an inherently creative principle in the evolutionary process, which manifests a directional or purposive principle. For some modern cosmologists, the entire universe is an evolu­tionary system.

A region of physical influence. Fields connect matter and energy within their realm of influence. Fields are not a form of matter; rather, matter is energy bound within fields. In current physics, several kinds of fundamental field are recognized: the gravitational and electro-magnetic fields and the matter fields of quantum physics.

The active power, strength or energy brought to bear, which alters the state of rest or motion of a body.

The shape, configuration, or structure of something, as distinguished from its material. In the Platonic tradition, the term Form is used to trans­late the Greek term eidos and is interchangeable with the term Idea. Partic­ular things we experience in the world participate in their eternal Forms, which transcend space and time. By contrast, in the Aristotelian tradition, the forms of things are immanent in the things themselves. Forms have no objective reality independent of our own minds.

Gene / genome
See DNA.

The genetic constitution of an organism. See Phenotype

Glial cell
Any of the non-neuronal constituent cells of the brain or the peripheral nervous system. The majority of the brain’s cells are glia, not neurons.

Glia Bridges
Strings of glia cells that develop between two active neurons, providing a temporary channel capable of passing a neural impulse from one neuron to stimulate the other. If a temporary link is not used again, it dissolves. If a temporary link continues to be activated, the ‘bridge’ is strengthened. Further activity stimulates the neural nucleus to replace this temporary link with a permanent dendrite or axon filament. In this way the components of new neural networks are automatically created in response to the initial neural stimulation.

The transmission of characters from ancestors to their descendents. Originally understood in a broad sense which included the inheritance of acquired characteristics and habits of life; restricted in modern biology to mean the inheritance of genes

A part of the brain under the cerebral cortex traditionally associated with memory.

The doctrine that wholes are more than the sum of their parts

A peptide produced by one tissue and conveyed by the bloodstream to another to effect a change in physiolog­ical activity, such as growth or metabolism. Many hormones are known to affect mood, and therefore the efficiency of the brain’s response to stimuli.

A region of the brain thought to secrete hormones involved in hunger, thirst, sex etc.


Imagination see Appendix


To inform literally means to put into form or shape. Informa­tion is now generally taken to be the source of form or order in the world. For example in the concept of “genetic information” it is the sequencing of nucleotide bases that dictates the form of a new living organism.


“Information is information; it is neither matter nor energy.” (Norbert Weiner 1961). See potential (matter) and kinetic (energy) information 

Information theory
A branch of cybernetics that attempts to define the amount of information required to control a process of given complexity. Information in this narrow technical sense is measured in bits. A bit is the amount of information required to specify one of two alternatives, for example to distinguish between 1 and 0 in the binary notation used in computers.

See Appendix


Intelligence see Appendix

Kinetic Information
Information that is active and can do work. See ‘Potential Information’. 

Based on language, classification, definition, association, cross references, notation, measurement, Observation, Statistical regularities, Pattern invariance.


Lamarckian inheritance
The inheritance of acquired characteristics. Until the late nineteenth century, it was generally believed that an organism’s descendents could benefit from the accumulated experience of their ancestors, and both Lamarck and Darwin shared this general opinion. It went out of fashion in the twentieth century, largely because no one could conceive how such a process might operate, and the concept that genes mutate randomly became orthodox.

From the Latin ligare, “that which binds” (same root as religion). A variety of small molecules that bind to cellular receptors and convey information to the cell.

Limbic system
The system of the brain primarily associated with memory and emotion.

Kinesin.   A protein that converts ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) into motion.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
A method of scanning the brain based on the resonance of atomic nuclei. This process enables the neurons of a live and fully operational brain to be monitored by showing the uptake of sucrose, which is thought to be a good guide to their level of activity. MRI scanning enables experiments to be carried out to try and determine brain activity associated with various activities.

fMRI Scans 3d image in real time.

In Newtonian physics, matter, distinguished by mass and extension, was contrasted with energy. According to relativity theory, mass and energy are mutually trans­formable, and material systems are now regarded as forms of energy.

The capacity for remembering, recalling, recollecting, or recogniz­ing. In the hypothesis outlined in this book memory is a set of instructions. A group of neural networks that initiates an activity.

Term referring to that part of our consciousness that thinks and makes decisions. In Cartesian dualism, the conscious thinking mind is distinct from the material body; e.g. the mind is non-material. Materialists postulate that the mind derives from the physical activity of the brain. Psychologists point out that the conscious mind is associated with a much broader or deeper mental system, the unconscious mind. In the view of Jung, this unconscious mind is not merely individual but collective.

In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. These organelles range from 0.5 to 1.0 micrometer in diameter. Mitochondria are sometimes described as “cellular power plants” because they generate most of the cell’s supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy. In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in other tasks such as signaling, cellular differentiation, cell death, as well as the control of the cell cycle and cell growth.

Massive open online course. Distance Learning

A sudden change. Mutations can generally be traced to changes in the genetic material. The term mutation is now generally taken to mean a random change in a gene. 

A chemical unit made up of three or many more atoms. Each kind of molecule has a characteristic atomic composition, a specific structure, and specific physical and chemical properties. See Atom.

Monera Cells
Monera are bacteria and other mostly tiny, single-celled organisms whose genetic material is loose in the cell. The genetic material of plants, animals usually referred to as Archaea.

MRI Scans
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scanners Uses the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast, discovered by Seiji Ogawa

Functional MRI scans

Real Time functional MRI

The modern version of the Darwinian theory of evolution by natural selection. It differs from Darwin’s theory in that it denies the possibility of Lamarckian inheritance; heredity is explained solely in terms of inherited genes.

Neural Correlate
The neural activity that causes some sensation or activity

Neural Modules: Neurules
Neural modules Also Chunking; Mental subroutines, Neural enclosures, Memes, Engrams, Cell Assemblies (HEBB), Mental subroutines, Basic unit of memory, ideas and concepts.


The principal component of the nervous system. Each Neuron consists of a cell nucleus and branched protoplasmic extensions that receive impulses from adjacent cells (dendrites); and transmit impulses away from the nucleus (axons). Also called nerve cells. Neurons are usually associated with the brain and the control of muscles, but their presence in close association with all the glands and tissue immune cells suggests they are also involved in many other interactions especially between the immune system and the nervous system.

The process whereby new neurons are grown that are not caused, influenced or directed by the inherited DNA.

One of nearly 100 small peptide substances.

A chemical substance, such as acetylcholine or dopa­mine, that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse.

(computer science) a rigorous and exhaustive organization of some knowledge domain that is usually hierarchical and contains all the relevant entities and their relationships

Collection of pre-Christian papyri found near Cairo.

An example or pattern. In the sense of T. S. Kuhn (1970), scientific paradigms are general ways of seeing the world that are shared by members of a community, and they provide models of acceptable ways in which problems can be solved.

Peptide see PNA
Any of various natural or synthetic compounds containing two or more amino acids linked by the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another. By definition, polypeptides are the larger peptides, usually those with in excess of 100 amino acids. They are smaller than the proteins, which may have 200 or more amino acids as well as other attached molecules, such as sugars or lipids.

Peripheral nervous system
The peripheral nervous system is the system of nerves that links the brain and the central nervous system to the rest of the human body. Sensory nerve dendrite filaments carry impulses from sense receptors to the central nervous system. Motor nerve axon filaments carry impulses from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands.

The actual appearance of an organism; its manifested attributes and behaviours that emerge from the purely genetic material the organism has inherited from its parents.

The smallest measurable unit of light

Argued in favour of Inductive reasoning

Plank Time 10 -43 

Potential information
Static information held in some form of memory. See Kinetic Information. 

PNA see DNA (peptide nucleic acid) Michael Brooks ‘13 Things’ p75-6

The philosophical tradition that, following Plato, postulates the existence of an autonomous realm of Ideas or Forms or essences existing outside space and time and independently of manifestations of them in the phenomenal world.


3,000 BC        12 million

1,900 AD        1 billion

2005 AD         6 billion 

Positron Emission Tomography (PET Scan)
A means of studying the living brain based on the transmission of positrons

A complex organic macromolecule composed of many amino acids linked together in chains, called polypeptide chains. There are many different kinds of protein molecule. Proteins are fundamental components of all living cells and include many substances, such as enzymes, hormones, and anti bodies, that are necessary for the proper functioning of an organism.

The sequence of amino acids is specified by the sequence of nucleotides in the DNA of genes. There may be one or more such chains in a protein, and the chains are folded up into characteristic three-dimensional configurations, which are thought to determine the function that the cell carries out.

The belief that the universe is somehow essentially mathe­matical and that everything can be understood in terms of patterns. This philosophy had a strong influence on Plato. Memory could be said to be patterns of neural activity.

Medieval curriculum http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/quadrivium

The quadrivium consisted of arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy.

The quadrivium was considered preparatory work for the serious study of

philosophy (sometimes called the “liberal art par excellence”) and theology.

See Trivium.

The subjective quality of some mental experience: the redness of a rose, beauty, happiness; and, in particular, consciousness.

Quantum Physics
A description of the behaviour of matter and light at the sub atomic level.


Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep
A phase of sleep when we dream. Possibly partial sleep.


A group of proteins in the outer cell membrane that binds with ligands such as hormones, antigens, drugs, peptides, or neurotransmitters.


Red Shift: Doppler Effect 

Explaining a phenomenon in terms of its constituent parts. The opposite of ‘Emergent’.


RNA see DNA and PNA (peptide nucleic acid) 

Statistical regularities, Pattern invariance

Organic compounds that play many important functional roles in the overall communication systems of the body. 

Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (Squid)
An instrument for detecting changes in the very small magnetic fields in the brain

The very narrow gap that forms all the junctions between individual neurons, and between neurons and the other sensory or motor cells like those in the eyes, ears, tongue, skin, nose and the muscles or glands.

Synaptic Tension
The strength of the energy holding the two constituents of the synapse together. If the tension is high and so the width of the synaptic gap is at its minimum then the communication across the junction will be fast and efficient, a state associated with being awake, alert, aware and conscious. If the synaptic tension falls and the gap widens, then communication across the junction will diminish and slow down, a state associated with being drowsy, asleep, unconscious or anaesthetised. The swift raising of the level of synaptic tension across a particular section of the brain may account for the way we can focus quickly on a new activity and so respond to a new situation immediately.

Systems theory
A form of holism concerned with the organization and properties of “systems” at all levels of complexity. Much of the early inspira­tion for this approach came from an attempt to establish parallels between physiological systems in biology and social systems in the social sciences. The systems approach has been deeply influenced by the study of cybernetics. The central theme of much systems thinking is the self-organising and self-regulating machine or organism.

Teleodynamic End directed activities 

Teleomorphic End directed pattern forming.

The study of ends or final causes; the explanation of phenomena by reference to goals or purposes.

The science of adaptation. “In effect, teleonomy is teleology made respectable by Darwin” (Dawkins, 1982). The apparently purposive structures, functions, and behaviour of organisms are regarded as evolution­ary adaptations established by natural selection.

Procedure through time for a purpose, a final cause.
See article in Observer Ed Vulliamy

Part of the forebrain, thought of as the ‘gateway’ to the cortex.

Medieval curriculum. Made up of grammar, logic, and rhetoric. See Quadrivium.

Wernicke’s area
A region towards the back of the brain associated with language see Broca’s Area


6,000 languages
Use 350 m words in life
Learn 5,000 by five years old



A mental representation of something.


The action of forming a mental concept of actions or sequence of events that are not present to the senses and are not in existence

Intelligence Latin Root intellegere, of understanding. 

The action or fact of mentally apprehending something quickly: understanding, knowledge, comprehension of something. OED

Intelligent: intelligible, capable of understanding: Intelligibly, comprehensively.

See file of Quotations.

Creative thinking is:-

To see established facts in a new context

Contemplate our present knowledge in the panorama of the millennia

Think in unpredictable channels

Countenance the ridiculous

Consider the impractical

Imagine the impossible

Decide on the illogical

Conceive the unlikely

Do the unattainable

And be right.

Man & Machines

Brains & Computers


Human Brain           

Machine (Artificial)


Digital binary coding system                                           Analogue & parallel

Based on Morse code                                                    electrochemical patterns

supporting alphabets, numerals,                                 physical neural structures

symbols, sounds & images.

Machine (Artificial)                  MEMORY

Semi conductors

Binary magnetic patterns                                            electrochemical patterns

on various media                                                         physical neural structures

(Historically) Holes in paper tape

and cards.   Print on paper,

Artificial (Machine)           INTELLIGENCE

Accurate and fast execution                                                    Fast inherited & learned

of algorithms, set out in                                                          responses to events.

hierarchies of programs of ever                                   “Knowing what to do when

greater sophistication and                                                  we do not know what to do.”

Complexity.                                                                “Coping with the unexpected.”                                                                                                                    Probability.

Artificial (Machine)                THINKING

Design, preparation and testing                                              Problem solving

of new program algorithms.                                   Growth of new electrochemical

neural structures.

Creating new ideas & concepts.

Preparation & Feedback         .

CTR Nov 2012.